Ab’ad: distant
Adab: arts, ethics, civilization
Adapt: custom
Ad-Din: the religion
Adhan: call for prayer (solat)
Adl: Justice
Ahli sunnah wal-jamaah: the people of the sunnah and the community or people of the prophetical tradition and the community
Ahkam: rulings, laws
‘ain: essence
Akhlaq: ethics, morals, character
Al-‘Adl: justice and worshipping none but Allah alone
Al-Baghy: all kinds of oppression
Al-Fahsha’: all evil deeds
al-Haj: honorific used after the name for both males and females who have made
the ‘Haj’, pilgrimage, to Mecca.
Al-Ihsan: to be patient in performing your duties to Allah, totally for Allah’s sake
‘alim: – Islamic religious scholar
Allahu Akbar: God is Greater (than anything), God is very great
al-Marhum: the honoured deceased, prefixed to the titles of sovereigns and
people of very high rank.
Al-Munkar: all that is prohibited
Al-Muttaqun: the pious and righteous who fer and love Allah much
‘amaliyah: activity, practices
Amanah: trust; discharging one’s trust
‘aqd: contract
Amin: Custodian
Amirul Mu’minin: commander of the faithful
Ansor: helpers, in particular the inhabitants of Madinah who supported the Prophet Muhammad
‘aqidah: faith
‘asabah: male relatives on the father’s side; universal heirs
As-Sunnah al-Qauliyah: the Prophet’s sayings
As-Sunnah al-Fi’liyyah: the Prophet’s practices
As-Sunnah at-Taqririyah: practices approved by the Prophet
Astana (or istana): palace.
Auliya’: protectors and helpers, etc
Awang: style of address originally used for lesser nobles but now used as an
equivalent for Mister (Mr).
Awangawang (or awang2): aristocrats.
Awangku: title of an unmarried son of a Pangiran.
Awqaf: plural of waqf.
Awrah: the portion of body that should be covered according to syara’
Ayat: Proofs, evidences, verses, signs, revelations, etc (Quranic verse)
Ayat ahkam: verses which give rulings with a legal connotation

Bakso: meatball soup
Banu: tribe, clan
Bay’ah: Oath of allegiance
Berkat: blessed.
Brunei: derived from Sanskrit Varunai meaning Sea people
bunga kunyit, Tumeric flower.

Cheteria: the third rank of official, after Vizier; warrior

Da’iyah: Caller to Islam
Da’wah: inviting or calling people to worship Allah; propagation of the (Islamic) faith.
Da’wah bil-lisan wa-bil-hal: propagation of the (Islamic) faith with the mouth and through tangible deeds.
Da’wah bil-hal: propagation of the (Islamic) faith through tangible deeds.
Dar us-Salam: ‘Abode of Peace’.
Dato (also Datu or Datuk): part of the title for non-nobles, now also used for
certain higher classes of the Orders of Chivalry, equivalent to Knight
Dayah: Acehnese name for pesantren (Islamic boarding school)
Dayang: female of equivalent of Awang. Originally a title used for lesser
nobles but now used as an equivalent for “Miss”.
Dayangku: female equivalent of Y.M. Awangku, title used for unmarried
daughters of a Pangiran, retained after marriage if the husband is a commoner.
Dhikr: (mystic drills in order to) repeat or commemorate (God)
Diyat: blood-money
Dinar: Money (gold)
Dirham: Money (silver)
Duli Paduka Sri Pangiran Muda Mahkota: Crown Prince.
Duli Pangiran Bendahara Paduka Sri Maharaja Permaisuara: the full style for
the highest Vizier title, usually held by a senior member of the Royal family.
Duli Pangiran di-Gadong Sahib ul-Mal ul-Mulk ul-Adli: the full style for one
of the senior Vizier titles, frequently held by members of the Royal family.
Vacant 1900-1968.
Duli Pangiran Pemancha Sahib ul-Rai’ wa ul-Mushuarat: the full style for one
of the senior Vizier titles, frequently held by members of the Royal family.
Sometimes translated as Minister for Home Affairs.
Duli Pangiran Shahbandar Sahib ul-Bandar Bait ul-Karib: the full style for one
of the Vizier titles of the second rank, frequently held by members of the
Royal family. Sometimes translated as minister for trade and commerce.
Dzalimun: polytheists and wrong-doers


Fardh: Mandatory; obligation
Fardh ‘ain: individual obligation
Fardh kifayah: collective obligation
Faskh: annulment, abrogation of marriage
Fasiq: sinner, deviant
Fasiqun: the rebellious
Fatawa: legal opinions; legak advice (in Islamic jurisprudence), statement of opinion concerning a question of Islamic Law.
Fatwa: legal opinion (singular)
Fi Sabilillah: Path of Allah
Fiqh: Islamic jurisprudence
Fiqh al-mu’amalah: Islamic jurisprudence concerning interhuman relations
Fitrah: the natural, primal condition of mankind
Fitrah: obligatory tax payable in the form of mankind
Furu’: branches, subsidiaries

Ghulul: To take illegally part of the booty

Hadith (plural: ahadith): prophetic tradition; report on sayings or acts of the Propher Muhammad; the collection of reports on sayings or acts of the Prophet
Hadith ahkam: ahadith which give rulings with a legal connotation
Haji: honorific used before the name for males who have made the pilgrimage,
to Mecca; person who performs or has performed the hajj.
Hajj: pilgrimage to Mekah and surroundings
Hajjah: honorific used before the name for females who have made the
pilgrimage, to Mecca; feminine form of hajj
Halal: lawful; allowed in Islamic law
Haram: unlawful; forbidden in Islamic law
Hidayah: guidance
Hijrah: emigration in the way of Allah
Hisab: (astronomical) calculation (in order to determine the Islamic months)
Hudud: specific punishments ropescribed by Syari’ah for specified crimes.
Hukm: ruling
Hulun: slave.

‘ibadah: worship; act of worship
I’tiqad: belief; intention
Ihram: A state in which pilgrims wear special white outfits: two-piece seamless garments for men and any loose dress for women, who are permitted to reveal hands and faces only. (BT, 15/11/2010)

Ihsan: absolute sincerity to Allah
ibni (ibnu): son of, used for persons of high rank only.
Ijab: positive proposal; the offer in contracts
Ijma’: consensus
Ijtihad: to exercise personal judgement in legal matters; independent development of
Islamic law.
Ikhtisas: restrictive interpretation
Ikhtisas al-khadi: restrictive interpretation of the kadhi
Ilhad: heresy, deviation
Imam: religious leader; prayer leader
Imam Mahdi: “The Divine Guided Leader’ – the descendant of the Prophet who will
return at the end of tikme to establish justice.
Iman: faith, belief
Ikrar: pledge
Iqamah: second call to the solat
Israk and Mikraj: the Prophet’s Night journey and ascension
Istana: Palace
Istihsan: juristic preference

Jam’iyyah Ahlith Thoriqoh Al-Mu’tabarah An-Nahdliyyah: Association of Adherents of the recognized Mystical Orders of the Nahdhatul Ulama (NU)
Jamrah: place of the stone-throwing ritual during the haj session
Jihad: endeavour, often translated, in a not totally satisfactory was, as
Jilbab: veil

Ka’bah: the small building in the centre of Masjid al-Haram in Mecca
Kadhi: judge
Kafir: disbeliever
Kafirun: disbelievers
Kalimah syahadah: attestation of faith
Katib: Secretary
Katib Aam: Secretary-General
Kawthar: the Lake-Fount
Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Paduka Sri Maulana Sultan: the full style of the
Kebawah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Paduka Sri Raja Istri: the full style of the
chief Royal wife of the Sultan.
Keris: traditional dagger
Khatib: preacher (on the occasion of collective solat such as Jumat prayer)
Khatifah: luxurious clothes
Khamisa: luxurious clothes
Khilafiyah: controversial issue (noun, plural); controversial (adjective)
Khittah: line, policy
Khiyar: choice
Khotib: see Khatib
Khulafaur Rasyidin, Al-: The Rightly Guided Caliphs
Kiai: honorific title for ‘alim, esp. in Java
Kufr: disbelieve
Kufu: socially equal
Kuliah Kerja Nyata: Practical work lessons


Ma’siyah: act of practice forbidden by Islamic law
Madrasah: (Islamic) school
Madrasah aliyah: (Islamic) senior high school
Madrasah aliyah program khusus: (Islamic) senior high school with a special programme
Madrasah ibtidaiyah: (Islamic) primary school
Madrasah tsanawiyah; (Islamic) secondary school
Madzhab: school of law, theological school
Madzhahib: school of law, theologyical school (plural of madzhab)
Maghrib: sunset
(Imam) Mahdi: literally, the rightly guided (leader); a person expected to lead humanity
and restore religion at the end of times
Majelis ta’lim: council of religious instruction: Islamic study group
Majelis Tarjih: Council of selection of the soundest standpoint on a controversial issue of
Islamic law (within the Muhammadiyah)
Masalih-mursalah: public interest
Maysir: gambling
Mentri (or Menteri): Minister.
Mentri Besar (or Menteri Besar): Chief Minister.
Mu’amalat: transactions
Mu’min: believer
Mu’minun: believers
Mubah: permitted, i.e. neither forbidden nor obligatory
Muballigh: Islamic preacher
Muflis; bankrupt
Mufti: someone qualified to give a legal opinion or fatwa mujtahid (plural mujtahidin)
person qualified to carry out ijtihad; person who offers fatwas
Muhsinun: Good-doers
Mukallaf: persons with full legal competence
Mustasyar: counselor
Musyawarah: deliberation

Nafl: Voluntary
Nafs: desires, lower self, soul
Najis: filth and impurity
Nass: textual evidence
Nusus: textual evidences (plural of nass)
Nuzul” the revelation of al-Quran
Nusyuz: violation of marital duties on the part of husband or wife
Nyepi: the Hindu day of silence and meditation

Orang (or urang): person, man.
Orang Kaya: literally “rich man”, part of a title for non-nobles.

Paduka Sri Pangiran Anak Putri: style used for the daughters of a Sultan born
of Royal wives.
Pancasila: Indonesian state ideology (litt. ‘Five Pillars’)
Pangiran (or Pangiran): title of married male descendants in the male line of
a Sultan or great nobleman, or for any female descendant in the male line who
has married a man of that rank.
Pangiran Anak: Prince or Princess, used for all daughters and all sons of
Sultans by lesser wives, the sons of a Sultan’s daughter, as well as the
children of Viziers.
Pangiran Anak Istri: Princess Consort, a title used for the senior and royal
wives of a Pangiran Muda.
Pangiran Muda: Prince, used for the (gahara) sons of the Sultan, Pangiran
Bendahara, and the eldest gahara son of the Pangiran di-Gadong.
Mentri (or Mantri): minister, ranking below vizier.
Pangiran Laila Cheteria Sahib ul-Nabala: one of the Vizier titles of the third
rank, frequently held by members of the Royal family.
Pangiran Maharaja Adinda: the full style for one of the Vizier titles of the
second rank, frequently held by members of the Royal family.
Pangiran Maharaja Laila Sahib ul-Kahar: the full style for one of the Vizier
titles of the second rank, frequently held by members of the Royal family.
Sometimes translated as Admiral.
Pangiran Paduka Tuan: the full style for one of the Vizier titles of the
second rank, frequently held by members of the Royal family.
Pangiran Perdana Cheteria Sahib ul-Nabala: one of the Vizier titles of the
third rank, frequently held by members of the Royal family.
Pangiranpangiran (or pangiran2): nobles.
Pehin: a non-noble official of high rank
Pemuda Muhammadiyah: Muhammadiyah youth
Pencak silat: a traditional Indonesian martial art
Pesantren: Islamic boarding school
Persatuan Melayu Brunei: Brunei Malay Youth Association.
Petisi 50: A group of 50 persons who in 1980 addressed a critical petition to President
Piagam Jakarta: Jakarta Charter (1945)
Pingat: medal
Plesetan: word playing
Puan Yang Terutama (P.Y.T.): Her Excellency.
pucuk pawas, budding leaves of a guava plant)
Pusat Studi Agama dan Kemasyarakatan: Centre for Religious and social Studies

Qabul: acceptance in a contract
Qadli: see Kadhi
Qawa’id fiqh: foundation of jurisprudence
Qiblah: orientation point for the direction of the prayer
Qirat: Measure of weight or volume
Qisas: law of retaliation or retribution
Qiyam: Voluntary prayet at night
Qiyas: analogy; analogical reasoning
Qudha: judges (plural of kadhi)

Rabbani: divine
Raja Istri: ‘royal wife’ or ‘the ruler’s wife’, the usual tile for the senior
wife and consort of the Brunei sovereign.
Raja Raja batas: high nobility.
Redha: is content with
Riba: usury
Ribat: Guarding the borders or the post at the frontiers)
Ro’is Aam: General chairman
Ro’is Syuriah: chairman of the Syuriah
Ru’yah: observation (esp. of the moon, in order to determine the Islamic months)

Sabirun: Patients
Safih: righteous
Salih: righteous
Sahh: valid
Salaf as-Salih: Pious predecessors
Salah: Solat
Salah al-tarawih: supererogatory solat in the evenings of the fasting month
Santet: black magic
Santri: pesantren student
Shari’ah: see syari’ah
Shirk: see Syirk
Sighah: proposal, the form of contract
Silaturahmi: friendly relations
Sri Paduka Duli Pangiran Temenggong Sahib ul-Bahar: the full style for the
second highest Vizier titles, usually held by a senior member of the Royal
family. Sometimes translated as Commander-in-Chief. Vacant 1885-1967.
Student senate: representative body of the students within an institution for higher
Subhanahu wa ta’ala: “Glorified is He and exalted,” anexpression that Muslims use when
the name of Allah is pronounced or written
sulh: spying
sunnah: prophetic traditions; prophetical tradition
sunnat: recommended; following prophetic traditions
surah: Chapter of Al-Quran
Syahadah: Martyrdom
Syakhsiah, character, personality
Syara’: religious law
Syar’i: legally recognized by the shari’ah
Syari’ah: law based on the teachings of the Quran and the traditions of the Prophet (PBUH)
Syirk: ascribing partners to Allah
Syuriah: Consulttaive Council (within NU)

Ta’zir: discretionary punishment
Tadris umum: general teachers’s training; an IAIN department training teachers for
various general, i.e. non-religious subjects
tafsir: Quran exegesis; Quran commentary
Taghut: false gods, idols, etc.
Talaq: divorce
Taqlid: (blind0 following (in Islamic jurisprudence and tradition)
Taqwa: fear of God
Tarbiyah: education; teachers’s training
Tarikh: history
Tasawwuf: mysticism
Tasyri’: religious law
Tauhid: Islamic monotheism, Divine Unity; the oneness, unity of God
Tawhid: see Tauhid
Tawadhu’: humility
Tuan Yang Terutama (T.Y.T.): His Excellency.

‘ulama’: scholars; plural of ‘alim.
‘umrah: minor pilgrimage to Mecca
Ukhuwah islamiyah: Islamic fraternity
ulam pegaga, a salad of pennywort leaves
Ummah: community or a nation
Universitas: university
Usul al-din: Islamic theology
Usul fiqh: theoretical jurisprudence

Vizier (or Wazir): the four highest noble officials, ranking immediately after the Sultan.

Wahy: divine revelation
Wajib: obligatory
Wali: guardian
Wali mujbir: guardian with the power to coerce
Wali nasab: guardian by virtue of lineage
Waqf: endowment; donation in usufruct – generally of an immovable property – for a religious, social or educational purpose; religious endowment
Wara’: scrupulousness, being cautions about one’s actions
Wird: traditional, supererogatory prayer
Wudhu: ritual ablution
Wujudiyah: (doctrine of) the union of existence 9between the Creator and the created universe)
Wuquf: stopping, halting (in the Plain of ‘Arafah, as part of the haj ritual)

Ya’juj wa Ma’juj: Gog and Magog
Yang di-Pertuan: (he) who is Lord, i.e. sovereign ruler.
Yang Amat Mulia (Y.A.M.): the style used for the daughter of a Sultan by a
senior wife, the children of a Sultan by his junior wives, the children of the
Pangiran Shahbandar, Maharaja Laila, Paduka Tuan, Maharaja Adinda, Cheteria
Besar, Cheteria Pengalasan and Cheteria Damit.
Yang Teramat Mulia (Y.T.M.): the style used for the children of a Sultan by a
Royal wife, the children of the Sri Paduka Duli Pangiran Bendahara, the
di-Gadong, the Pemancha and the Temenggong.
Yayasan: foundation

Zakah: see Zakat
Zakat: obligatory tax; alms tax
Zhalim: wrong-doer, oppressor
Zhalimun: wrong-doers, oppressor (plural of zhalim)
Zuhr: Midday


Darul Aqsha, Dick van der Meij, Johan Hendrik Meuleman, Islam in Indonesia: A Survey of Events and Developments from 1988 to March 1993. (Jakarta: INIS, 1995)
Prof. Dato’ Dr Haji Mahmud Saedon bin Awang Othman, A review on the Implementation and Administration of Islamic Law in Brunei Darussalam (BSB: Pusat Da’wah Islam, 2008)

Darul Aqsha

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