Reasons why Britain bombed Surabaya


Darul Aqsha


“10 November ’45, Mengapa Inggris Membom Surabaya?” (“10 November ’45, Why Did Britain Bomb Surabaya?”)
By Batara R. Hutagalung; Millenium Publisher, Jakarta; (Oct. 2001), first edition, xiv + 472 pp; Rp 59,900,-

THIS book analyzes the simultaneous sea, land and air campaign by British forces against the defenders of the East Java capital of Surabaya in November 1945.

To this day, it remains a bitter memory for older Indonesians.

In the author’s opinion, there are two main reasons why Britain, which did not hold colonial authority over Indonesia, launched the invasion.
First, there were psychological and emotional reasons at play, since Britain was victorious in World War II. Second, the British were bound by a treaty with the Dutch stemming from the conference at Yalta on Feb. 11, 1945, and the Postdam Declaration, which took place on July 26, 1945.

The objectives of the treaty were “to reestablish civilian rule, and return the colony to Dutch administration,” as well as “to maintain the status quo which existed before the Japanese invasion”.

They can be found in a letter dated Sept. 2, 1945 by the Allied Forces’ Supreme Commander South East Asia Vice Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten. British assistance was also in line with the Civil Affairs Agreement between the Dutch and Britain in Chequers, Britain, on Aug. 24, 1945.

The author also outlines the violations committed by British troops. They include infringements upon the sovereignty of the fledgling nation of Indonesia, human rights abuses — including crimes against humanity and forced displacement — and war crimes.

Apart from its thorough dissection of this bloody chapter of Indonesian history, this book carries something else of equally important historical significance: an official apology from the British government. It was expressed by British Ambassador to Indonesia Richard Gozney in the name of the British government during a seminar on the Battle of Surabaya in Jakarta in October 2000.

It was a sympathetic act — one which has yet to be offered by the Dutch who, as a colonial power, ruled Indonesia for centuries.–

The Jakarta Post
Sunday, December 30, 2001



The Tomb of Raja Ayang in Brunei


THERE’S a point of interest in the capital that sometimes escapes the attention of passersby, or even the workers in Bandar Seri Begawan who park their cars unassumingly in the car park next to it, but Makam Raja Ayang or the Raja Ayang Mausoleum embodies a sad story that harkens back to Brunei’s past.

The tombstone is dated 1452 AD, which corresponds to the time of Sultan Sulaiman and, according to stories passed down from generation to generation, Raja Ayang was a lady who was a descendant of Ibn Ismail bin Yusof bin Al Aziz Al Khawlani and related to the Brunei Royal family. The lady in question had an unlawful relationship with a sibling, which contravened Islamic religious laws, and was subsequently punished.

During that period, Sultan Sulaiman was known as a king who strictly adhered to Islamic principles. The incident provides a clear picture of the Brunei Sultan at that time, who was firm in carrying out punishments against anyone who went against the Islamic law, and those who were punished were willing to receive the punishments.

In the case of Raja Ayang, no one had the heart to stone the couple to death. However the couple could not be left unpunished, and so they were banished to live in an underground shelter, away from the rest of society, and to live out the rest of their days in seclusion. This punishment was willingly served by the couple, who understood the gravity of their crime. The shelter was shaped like a hill and had many rooms with cooking utensils and sufficient provisions to serve out their sentence. Historians say it was unclear as to how long they survived as some stories recount that they lived for a week, while others for as long as 40 days. According to one historical narrative, the lady was banished to live alone for the rest of her days, while another says she and her entourage voluntarily went to their deaths.

The hill, three metres tall and twelve metres wide, no longer exists as the grave was damaged and levelled by a bomb during the arrival of the allied forces that ended the Japanese occupation of Brunei Town around May 1945. The current mausoleum was renovated and built by the Public Works Department in September 2008, and handed over to the Brunei History Centre upon its completion in October 2009.

Members of The Brunei Museums Department and the History Centre once stumbled across an unmarked gravestone buried a few centimetres away from the Raja Ayang Mausoleum, which had no name or date of death marked on it. Researchers had previously never come across any gravestone at the mausoleum site, apart from Raja Ayang’s, and it is now believed to belong to Raja Ayang’s brother who, according to myth, was buried with her.

Today, visitors can read the story of Raja Ayang which is inscribed on the mausoleum in English, Malay and Jawi script. The inscription also conveys the hope that the punishment dealt was sufficient during the life of the couple that they would be forgiven and not suffer further in the life hereafter.

The Brunei Times,
Friday, May 7, 2010
Photo Courtesy: Borneo Insider

The mystery of 1965 tragedy, can it be solved with reconciliation?

Ananda Rasti

RESPONDING to solve the mystery of 1965 tragedy, the government for the first time in history organized an official event to openly discuss the 1965 massacre, involving the survivors, the government, the National Commission on Human Rights (Komnas HAM), academics, and human rights groups.

The symposium, spearheaded by Komnas HAM and the Presidential Advisory Board (Wantimpres), will discuss rehabilitation and compensation for the victims of the tragedy, which took place more than 50 years ago and remains a deeply sensitive topic in Indonesia. The event will occur ahead of a May 2 deadline for settling serious past human rights violations, as declared by Political, Legal and Security Affairs Minister Luhut Pandjaitan last month.

The two-day event, entitled “Dissecting the 1965 tragedy”, comprised discussions among stakeholders and aimed to provide recommendations for the government on the efforts to settle the past atrocities. The organizers invited three sides to the symposium: members or relatives of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI), ex-military personnel who were involved in operations against members of the PKI, and those who were accused of being PKI members and communist academics.

The two-day symposium on the 1965 tragedy ended on Monday (18/4/2016), but historians could not reach any conclusions about this dark episode in Indonesian history, although the organizers tried to invite all related parties to participate in the discussion.

Quoting from The Jakarta Post, the kidnapping and murder of six Army generals on Sept. 30, 1965, led to a purge of communists and alleged communist sympathizers by the military under the leadership of Soeharto. In the purge, countless thousands were murdered, tortured and arrested without trial. It is estimated that between five hundred thousan to one million people were killed during the cleansing of people with any leftist connections, regardless of their age or level of connection.

Meanwhile, former Army Special Forces (Kopassus) member Lt. Gen. (Ret) Sintong Pandjaitan was a regiment commander of the Army Para Commando Regiment (RPKAD), which led the anti-PKI campaign in areas across Indonesia. At the symposium, Sintong denied that the number of victims killed after the G30S/PKI incident amounted to hundreds of thousands. “It’s a lie,” the retired military general said as quoted by Tempo. “Such a lie has tainted our honor as RPKAD members,” he went on.

Sintong Pandjaitan

Sintong Pandjaitan

Sintong was referring to the results of an investigation by a fact-finding commission formed by President Soekarno in December 1965 and led by then-Home Minister Maj. Gen. Soemarno. The team concluded that the number of victims was 80,000. President Soekarno was not sure about the investigation results and confided that to a team member, Oei Tjoe Tat. “It is around five to six times higher [than the 80.000 figure],” said Oei, as quoted by Julius Pour in his book Gerakan 30 September.

Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), the largest Islamic outfit in Indonesia, has called on the government to uncover the truth behind the violence and repression that wracked the nation in 1965-1966. According to NU executive Imam Aziz, the government needs to continue to promote dialogue and shed light on the tragedy.

“The most important thing is to reveal all the facts, and then determine how to continue,” said Imam, adding that revealing the truth would put an end to the “glorification” of the perpetrators, who regarded themselves as victors and heroes.

According to Imam, NU has yet to decide on a firm position in regard to the latest government efforts to settle past human rights abuses and reconcile with the victims, but the ulemas are expected to decide one soon. “I hope NU will take a positive position,” Imam said.

Survivors of the 1965 tragedy have called for reconciliation through the revelation of the truth behind the mass killing of members and sympathizers of PKI and their families. The government of Indonesia stance is a clear. Indonesia’s government doesn’t to apologize to PKI because the botched of PKI efforts to change state ideology, Pancasila to be communism ideology.

Crucially, the mystery of 1965 tragedy has still been blurred because many of vested interest group which come from Indonesia and abroad were politized these issue which could be had “hidden agenda” to raise communist ideology in Indonesia. However, we must alert on the rise of the communist group in Indonesia, because now they are moving under the ground and on all fronts. We must defend our national ideology, Pancasila whatever any risks will be taken.

*) The writer is a historic observer at Galesong Institute and LSISI Jakarta.

Source: Antara

Sultans of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat

HB Keraton-Jogja

Keraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat


Keraton originally means as the place for the ratu (queens) to stay, came from the words of: ka + ratu + an = keraton. It is also translated as a palace. The term Keraton is a palace with several meanings; religious, philosophy, and also cultural. Keraton is rich with its hidden meanings and significance, which is important not just for the internal community but also to the city development of Yogyakarta. Whilst the name of Ngayogyakarta was taken from the area of Yogyakarta, with more comprehensive meaning of Yogya (Goodness) + Karta (Properous) and also Ngayu (Goodness) + Bagya (Happiness) + Karya (Inovative).

 The elements of Keraton, including the ornaments, the buildings, decorations, also the colors and plants have their own hidden story. All of their stories seems to encourage about the importance of doing good deeds in the world and will carry on until the life after death to the people also the visitors. The philosophy mostly adapted from Islam religion with the mix of Hinduism, and progressing until now.

1746 – 1749: Conflict Between Brothers

 The birth of Keraton begun with the battle of Prince Mangkubumi to win back the Mataram Kingdom that has been surrendered by his step brother, Prince Pakubuwono II to the Dutch Colony, with personal interest. The two brother were in the same Kingdom of Mataram. The Mataram Kingdom was originally concluded both the city of Yogyakarta and Surakarta (Solo).

 It took more or less 9 years for Sultan Hamengkubuwono I to restore the Mataram dynasty that was temporarily handed by his older brother, Sunan Pakubuwono 2nd to the Dutch East Indies.


Sultan Hamengkubuwono I, who then went by the name Raden Mas Sujono, went to Sukowati.


On December 1749, Raden Mas Sujono was crowned as the first sultan of Sunan Kabanaran.

 The reason Pakubuwono 2nd gave their land to the Dutch East Indies was to reassure that his heir will become sultan. On December 15 1749, the Dutch East Indies crowned Pakubuwono the 3rd as the succcessor to balance the recently crowned Pakubuwono I.

 Pakubuwono 2nd died in December 20, 1749.

1755: The Giyanti Agreement & the Birth of Keraton Yogyakarta

 With all of the conflicts and tension that happened between the two Keraton of Yogyakarta and Surakata, Dutch Colony then tried to separate the two Kingdom with “Giyanti Agreement” that stated, the Mataram Kingdom will be divided by two regions, the Sunanate of Surakarta which under the authority of Prince Pakubuwono II, and the Sunanate of Yogyakarta which under the authority of Prince Mangkubumi then later became the first Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono, the first “Sultan” (ruler) of Keraton Yogyakarta.

1755 – 1756

The First Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono and The Construction of Keraton Yogyakarta


Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono I

Original Name: Bendara Raden Mas Sujono/ Prince Mangkubumi
Date of Birth: 7 August 1717
Crowned: 13 February 1755
Died: 24 March 1792

 After Prince Mangkubumi was crowned as the first Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono as the ruler of Sunanate Yogyakarta, he decided to build a royal palace by his own desire. Sultan Hamengkubuwono I was the architect of the Keraton Surakarta. His residence in Jogjakarta was his private residence; the design was an application of his philosophies

 Keraton was built on forest, the concept was adapted the Hinduism belief which communicates the relation between God with all of his creation. Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono I believe that our level as human is the same with other living creature. Therefore, it is important to treat the others equally as God sees us all the same way. Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono was also a Muslim. He added philosophies of Islam into the royal palace.

 Sri Sultan Hamengkubowo I Facts:

  • Had wives in total of 25

  • The total of his children is 32

1792 – 1921: The Successors of Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono

 The era of two centuries after the the First Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono was considered as the era of stabilisation. There were not many significant changes happening at that time. Keraton Yogyakarta was still in good condition, with the system that was built by Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono 1 and continued since. Although, each of the successors has their own little stories.


Sultan Hamengkubuwono II                            Sultan Hamengkubuwono III

Original Name: Gusti Raden Mas Sundoro                        Original Name: Gusti Raden Mas Surojo
 Date of Birth: 7 March 1750                                                    Date of Birth: 20 February 1769
 Crowned: 2 April 1792                                                               Crowned: 12 June 1812
 Died: 3 January 1828                                                                  Died: 3 November 1814

 Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono II Facts:        Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono III Facts:

Had wives in total of 28                                                              Had wives in total of 25
The total of his children is 80                                                  The total of his children is 32
Hamengkubuwono IV
Hamengkubuwono V
Hamengkubuwono VI
Hamengkubuwono VII

1921 – 1939

Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono VIII, the Father of New Development


Hamengkubuwono VIII

 The era of Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono VIII was known as the era of new development. This was known based on the new added elements at Keraton Yogyakarta by on the 20th Century. He implemented many of his designs with the use of symbols that has the components of 8 (eight). The elements that were designed by Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono VIII are also shown in the section of                                                                                .

 Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono VIII’s contributions to Keraton Yogyakarta were significant. According to the history, the era of Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono VIII was the time when the Dutch East Indies was trying to take to the whole Yogyakarta for their own purpose, by built fort with missiles that were aiming to Keraton Yogyakarta. However, Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono VIII was smart enough to manipulate them and develop the royal palace using the social funding so that the Dutch East Indies could not take it.

 Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono VIII Facts:

  • Had wives in total of 8

  • The total of his children is 41

1940 – 1988

Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX, the One Who Experienced 5 Periods


Hamengkubuwono IX

 Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX was named as the phenomenal Sultan of Keraton Yogyakarta. He experienced the 5 Periods: 1) The time when Dutch East Indies were invading Indonesia, 2) The British Occupation and the Java War, 3) Japanese Occupation in Indonesia, 4) The revolution period when Indonesia fought to reach their independence, 5) The time when Indonesia proclaimed themselves as an independent country in 1945.

 Under the authority of Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX, Keraton Yogyakarta then decided to be a part of Republic of Indonesia. Keraton Yogyakarta was very significant to Indonesia at that time, chosen as the location for the coronation of the first Indonesian President in 1945. Hamengkubuwono IX was also officiated as the second Vise-President of Indonesian between 1973 – 1978.

 He went to Leiden, Netherlands and pursued his study. His father (Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono VIII) sent him there in order to learn the true education and meet the real ‘Dutch People’ with the hope that Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX will return home and could finally be free from the Dutch East Indies.

 Because of his magnificent achievements during his reign, he held the title of  “Ngarsa Dalem Sampeyan Dalem Ingkang Sinuwun Kangjeng Sultan Hamengkubuwana Senapati-ing-Ngalaga Abdurrahman Sayidin Panatagama Khalifatullah ingkang Jumeneng Kaping Sanga ing Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat”. There is also a museum dedicated to Sri Sultan Hamengkubowono IX in order to remember his contributions for Keraton Yogyakarta and also Indonesia.

The Hamengkubuwono 9 museum was built because to commemorate the sultan’s tremendous efforts of uniting the Kraton with Indonesia. The construction of the museum was initiated by Jogjakarta local authorities with Murwanto/ Tri Martini.

Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX Facts:

  • had wives in total of 5

  • The total of his children is 22

1986 – Present

Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X, The Current Sultan


Hamengkubowono X

 Nowadays, the family tree of Sultan Hamengkubuwono is currently hold by Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono the 10th. He is also officiate as a Governor of Yogyakarta, from 1998 until present.

 One of the events that is still debatable in the area of Keraton Yogyakarta is the problem regarding to the next successor of Hamengkubuwono, as Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono does not have a Son.

 Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono X Facts:

  • He has one wife

  • The total of his daughters is 5

  • Therefore, he does not have a Son who could possibly his successor. Because of this matter, there are still some discussions about the controversial news of having his daugther as the successor.


Prince Mangkubumi’s war against Dutch colonial

Muslim figure appeals for screening of the film on the betrayal of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI)



MUSLIM figure K.H. Cholil Ridwan has put forth a request to screen a film depicting the failed coup attempt by the Communist Party (PKI) in 1965 by national television stations every year on September 30.

KH Kholil Ridwan

         KH Kholil Ridwan

G30S/PKI film must always be broadcast by national television stations in the country in the years to come,” he stated at the commemoration of the G30S/PKI treason at Lubang Buaya in East Jakarta on Thursday.
He affirmed that the government must encourage the screening of the film to remind the younger generation about the cruelties inflicted by the PKI.

Cholil, who is also one of the board members of the Indonesian Council of Ulemas, said he had also appealed to include the stories about PKI’s cruelties in the school curriculum, starting from the elementary level.

He noted that the stories had so far been excluded from the books used in elementary and junior high schools.

“We must denounce the emergence of armed farmers, which are the fifth generation of the PKI. The symbol of armed farmers must be rejected,” he stated.

President Joko Widodo led the commemoration of Pancasila Sanctity Day, which falls on October 1, at the Lubang Buaya Pancasila Sanctity complex in East Jakarta on Thursday morning.

The Pancasila Sanctity Day commemoration is held annually to honor the sanctity of the state ideology against the revolt of the PKI on September 30, 1965, marked among other events, by the kidnapping of the seven army generals including General Ahmad Yani, Major General Sutoyo, Lieutenant General M.T. Haryono, Major General D.E. Pandjaitan, and Lieutenant General S. Parman.

The aforementioned high commissioned officers were killed and their bodies dumped into the well-known Lubang Buaya pit on which the Pancasila Sakti Monument now stands.

On the following day, October 1, 1965, the National Armed Forces (TNI) succeeded in crushing the PKI revolt and recovered the bodies of the generals.


Thu, October 2, 2015

“Oeroeg”, The best movie of Indonesia Independence War




THERE were some movies which took Indonesia Independence War (1945-1949) as their setting. Most of them fell into two categories, propaganda and rubbish. Only few movies which were really good, such as Nagabonar and Soerabaja’45, although the latter sometimes fell into propaganda. Oeroeg was the best movie which took the era as it sets and ironically made by Netherland, which were Indonesia’s enemy.
oeroeg_childhoodWhen the other movies only talk about the war, this movie took a deeper approaching. It pulled us to understand the reason behind the war. Why the Indonesian refused to be controlled by the Dutch. It showed the discrimination experienced by Indonesian as third class citizen in the Dutch rule.

Oeroeg_sceneThe movie also showed a empathized-to-Indonesia-movement Dutch teacher which help Indonesia fighter degrading the fighting spirit of Dutch soldiers. It was more realistic role for foreigner in Indonesia at the time instead the irrational role which sometimes appeared in this genre (such as a dutch soldier in Indonesia line in “Singa Karawang” which was impossible due to high risk of being falsely recognized as enemy by the Indonesia people itself).

oeroeg-last sceneThe dialog was also interesting. In the last scene, Johan, as the main character ask Oeroeg whether they have already in the same degree. Oeroeg’s cynical reply is still relevant today. When the developed countries often call the other countries as the Third world, isn’t it another form of humiliation in modern world?

Hella S. Haasse

Hella S. Haasse



The Story of Mary and the Birth of Jesus in the Qur’an

mary yes scluptMarwa El-Naggar

IN Islam, Jesus (`Isa in Arabic) is considered one of the five greatest prophets sent by God to mankind. Muslims’ knowledge about Jesus is based on the two main sources of Islamic knowledge: the Qur’an and Hadith. In the Qur’an, Jesus is referred to as `Isa ibn Maryam, or Jesus, the son of Mary. The story of Mary and Jesus is best described in the Qur’an in the surahs of Aal `Imran and Maryam.

Mary: A Precocious Girlhood

The story starts with Mary, who was blessed as a child with God’s protection. Mary was born to the pious household of Aal `Imran, or the family of `Imran. Many people argued for the honor of taking care of the child, but the responsibility was given to Zachariah, an elderly and childless man, who immediately noticed that the young girl was special. One day, Zachariah noticed that the girl had in her possession certain provisions for which he could not account. He asked her how she came by the food and she answered,

[“From Allah: for Allah Provides sustenance to whom He pleases without measure.”](Aal `Imran 3:37)

This simple answer had a deep impact on the elderly man. Having long wished for a son, the devout Zachariah prayed to God for progeny. As the Qur’an relates in the verses below, his prayers were answered almost immediately, although his wife was barren and beyond childbearing age:

[Then Zachariah prayed unto his Lord and said: My Lord! Bestow upon me of Thy bounty goodly offspring. Lo! Thou art the Hearer of Prayer.

And the angels called to him as he stood praying in the sanctuary: Allah giveth thee glad tidings of (a son whose name is) John, (who cometh) to confirm a word from Allah lordly, chaste, a prophet of the righteous.] (Aal `Imran 3:38-39)

The uniqueness of Mary, noticed by Zachariah, was spelled out to her by the angels:

[Behold! The angels said: “O Mary! Allah hath chosen thee and purified thee- chosen thee above the women of all nations. O Mary! Worship thy Lord devoutly: Prostrate thyself, and bow down (in prayer) with those who bow down.”] (Aal `Imran 3:42-43)

Here the story of Mary’s upbringing and girlhood, as related in the Qur’an, ends.

The Miracle of Jesus

For more on the birth of Jesus, and the virginity of Mary, read In Defense of Mary the Virgin.

In the surah entitled “Maryam,” we hear more of this special woman’s story, best told by the Qur’an itself.

[Relate in the Book (the story of) Mary, when she withdrew from her family to a place in the East.

She placed a screen (to screen herself) from them; then We sent her our angel, and he appeared before her as a man in all respects.

She said: “I seek refuge from thee to (Allah) Most Gracious: (come not near) if thou dost fear Allah.”

He said: “Nay, I am only a messenger from thy Lord, (to announce) to thee the gift of a holy son.”

She said: “How shall I have a son, seeing that no man has touched me, and I am not unchaste?”

He said: “So (it will be): Thy Lord saith, ‘that is easy for Me: and (We wish) to appoint him as a Sign unto men and a Mercy from Us’: It is a matter (so) decreed.”

So she conceived him, and she retired with him to a remote place.] (Maryam 19:16–22)

“He hath made me blessed wheresoever I be, and hath enjoined on me Prayer and Charity as long as I live…”

From the Qur’anic description of events, we can deduce that Mary spent most of her pregnancy alone. What happened to her during this period is not mentioned in the Qur’an. The Qur’an picks up the story at the moment that Mary goes into labor.

[And the pains of childbirth drove her to the trunk of a palm-tree: She cried (in her anguish): “Ah! Would that I had died before this! Would that I had been a thing forgotten and out of sight!”

But (a voice) cried to her from beneath the (palm-tree): “Grieve not! for thy Lord hath provided a rivulet beneath thee;

“And shake towards thyself the trunk of the palm-tree: It will let fall fresh ripe dates upon thee.”] (Maryam 19:23-24)

God, knowing the reaction of society, further guided her how to deal with the situation:

[“So eat and drink and cool (thine) eye. And if thou dost see any man, say, ‘I have vowed a fast to (Allah) Most Gracious, and this day will I enter into not talk with any human being.’”] (Maryam 19:25)

When she carried the baby Jesus to her people, they questioned her; and as a baby in her arms, Jesus gave them the answer. The Qur’an describes this scene in detail:

[At length she brought the (babe) to her people, carrying him (in her arms). They said: “O Mary! Truly an amazing thing hast thou brought!

“O sister of Aaron! Thy father was not a man of evil, nor thy mother a woman unchaste!”

But she pointed to the babe. They said: “How can we talk to one who is a child in the cradle?”

He said: “I am indeed a servant of Allah: He hath given me revelation and made me a prophet;

“And He hath made me blessed wheresoever I be, and hath enjoined on me Prayer and Charity as long as I live;

“(He) hath made me kind to my mother, and not overbearing or miserable;

“So peace is on me the day I was born, the day that I die, and the day that I shall be raised up to life (again)”!] (Maryam 19:26-33)

And so the baby Jesus defended his mother from any accusations of adultery, and in a nutshell, explained who he was and why he was sent by God.

Here ends the story of Mary and miraculous birth of one of the greatest prophets of God, Jesus.

[Such was Jesus, son of Mary: (this is) a statement of the truth concerning which they doubt.] (Maryam 19:34)

Marwa Elnaggar is the Managing Editor of the Discover Islam zone in She has an M.A. in English and comparative literature and teaches Qur’an on a volunteer basis in Cairo, Egypt.

Monday, 28 February 2005

mary itali min